Outside walls are opened by hand, and inspected for cracks that could allow water, bugs, dirt and pollutants in. These cracks are dug and sealed. A sub-surface drain is installed to stop any casual surface water from running down the wall and into the basement area, surrounded by gravel, and the dirt is replaced. All above grade cracks are sealed, along with windows.
In this scenario, work is performed from the inside of the basement. The floor is opened next to the outside walls, and drain tile is installed and surrounded by gravel. The pipe is connected to a sump pump, which discharges the water.
Excavation consists of digging out all the dirt that sits by the walls down to footer level; replacing the footer tiles, sealing the walls, covering that with gravel and backfilling with soil to grade level.